Random walk or Non-random walk for forex

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    Random walk or Non-random walk for forex

    The great debate continues between random walkers and non-random walkers. Two competing books best represent these theories. Originally written by Burton Malkiel in 1973, A Random Walk Down Wall Street has become a classic in investment literature. Malkiel, a Princeton economist, argues that price movements are largely random and that investors cannot outperform major indices.

    Random walk vs Non-random walk and Free Forex Signals

    Written by Andrew W. Lo and A. Craig MacKinlay in 2001, the appropriately titled A Non-Random Walk Down Wall Street provides the counter-argument. Lo, a professor of finance at MIT and MacKinlay, a professor of finance at Wharton, argue that price movements are not so random and that there are predictable components. Let the battle begin!

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    With “random walk,” Malkiel claims that price movements in stocks are unpredictable. Due to this random walk, investors cannot consistently outperform the market as a whole. Applying fundamental analysis or technical analysis to market time is a waste of time that will simply lead to poor performance. Investors would be better off buying and holding an index fund.
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    Malkiel offers two popular investment theories that correspond to fundamental analysis and technical analysis. On the fundamental side, the “Firm Foundation Theory” argues that shares have an intrinsic value that can be determined by discounting future cash flows (earnings). Investors can also use valuation techniques to determine the true value of a security or market. Investors decide when to buy or sell based on these valuations.

    On the technical side and Forex Signals the “castle in the air theory” assumes that successful investing depends on behavioral finance. Investors must determine the mood of the market: bull or bear. Valuations are not important because a security is only worth what someone is willing to pay for it.

    The random walk theory agrees with the semi-strong efficient hypothesis in its claim that it is impossible to consistently outperform the market. This theory argues that stock prices are efficient because they reflect all known information (earnings, expectations, dividends). Prices adjust quickly to new information and it is practically impossible to act on this information. Also, the price moves only with the advent of new information and this information is random and unpredictable.
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    In short, Malkiel attributes any superior performance success to the lady's luck. If enough people try, some are likely to outperform the market, but most are likely to underperform.

    Non-random walk theory and the best Free Forex Signals
    A non-random tour of Wall Street is a collection of essays that provide empirical evidence that valuable information can be gleaned from security prices. Lo and MacKinlay used powerful computers and advanced econometric analysis to test the randomness of security prices. Although this book is a great read, the findings should be of interest to technical analysts and cartographers. In summary, this book documents the presence of predictable components in stock prices.

    Just before this book, Andrew Lo wrote an article for the Journal of Finance in 2000: Fundamentals of Technical Analysis: Computational Algorithms, Statistical Inference, and Empirical Implementation. Harry Mamaysky and Jiang Wang also contributed. The newspaper's initial comments say it all:

    “Technical analysis, also known as charts, has been part of financial practice for many decades, but this discipline has not received the same level of academic scrutiny and acceptance as more traditional approaches like fundamental analysis. One of the main obstacles is the highly subjective nature of technical analysis. The presence of geometric shapes on historical price charts is often in the viewer's eyes. In this paper, we propose a systematic and automatic approach to technical pattern recognition using non-parametric kernel regression and apply this method to a large number of EE stocks. USA From 1962 to 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of technical analysis. When comparing the unconditional empirical distribution of daily stock returns with the conditional distribution conditioned by specific technical indicators, such as head and shoulders or double bottom, we found that during the 31-year sample period, several technical indicators provide incremental information and may have some practical value. Find more Free Forex Signals at https://www.freeforex-signals.com/


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    What is the book value of the common share?
    Book value per common share (or simply book value per share – BVPS) is a method of calculating the book value per share of a company based on the equity of the common shareholders in the company. A company's book value is the difference between that company's total assets and total liabilities, not its market share price.

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    In the event of the dissolution of the company, the book value of each ordinary share indicates the remaining dollar value of the ordinary shareholders after all assets are liquidated and all debtors are paid.

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    Understand the book value

    The equation for the book value of a common share is:
    Book value per ordinary share (formula below) is an accounting measure based on historical transactions:

    What does BVPS tell you?
    The book value of ordinary shares in the numerator reflects the original returns that the company receives from the issuance of ordinary shares, which are increased by profits or decreased due to losses, and decreased by dividends paid. Company share buybacks reduce the book value and the total number of common shares. Stock buybacks occur at current stock prices, which can lead to a significant reduction in the company's book value per common stock. The number of common shares used in the denominator is usually the average number of diluted ordinary shares of the past year, which takes into account any additional shares other than the number of underlying shares that could arise from stock options, guarantees, preferred shares, and other convertible instruments.
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    Example of BVPS
    As a hypothetical example, suppose XYZ Manufacturing's common stock balance is $ 10 million, and one million shares of common stock outstanding, which means that BVPS is ($ 10 million / 1 million shares), or $ 10 per share. If XYZ manages to generate higher profits and uses those profits to buy more assets or reduce liabilities, the company's common stock increases. For example, if a company makes a profit of $ 500,000 and uses $ 200,000 of the profits to purchase the assets, the common stock increases along with the BVPS. On the other hand, if XYZ uses $ 300,000 in dividends to reduce liabilities, the common stock also increases.

    The difference between the market value of the share and the book value of the share
    The market value per share is the company's current share price, and it reflects the value that market participants are willing to pay for their regular share. Book value per share is calculated using historical costs, but market value per share is a forward-looking measure that takes into account the firm's future earnings strength. With increases in the company's estimated profitability, projected growth, and soundness of its business, the market value per share grows higher. Material differences arise between the book value per share and the market value per share due to the ways in which accounting principles classify certain transactions.

    For example, consider a company's brand value, which was created through a series of marketing campaigns. US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) require marketing costs to be spent promptly, which reduces the book value per share.1 However, if the advertising efforts enhance the company's product image, the company can charge premium rates and create brand value. Market demand may lead to an increase in the share price, which creates a large discrepancy between the market and the book values per share.
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    The difference between book value of common stock and net asset value (NAV)
    Whereas, BVPS considers the residual equity per share of the company's shares, net asset value, or NAV, to be the value per share computed for a mutual fund, exchange-traded fund, or ETF. For any of these investments, the net asset value is calculated by dividing the total value of all fund securities by the total number of fund shares outstanding. NAV is created daily for mutual funds. A number of analysts consider total annual return to be a better and more accurate measure of mutual fund performance, but net asset value is still used as an easy-to-use interim valuation tool.
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    BVPS limits
    Because the book value per share only takes into account book value, it fails to incorporate other intangible factors that may increase the market value of the company's shares, even upon liquidation. For example, high-tech banks or software companies often have very little tangible assets in relation to their intellectual property and human capital (workforce). These intangible assets will not always be taken into account in the book value calculation.

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